In Level 2 Lesson 14 and Level 2 Lesson 19, we looked at two different ways of changing a verb into the noun forms. They were -기 [-gi] and -는 것 [-neun geot] and they both express the meaning of “the act of doing something” or the verb in the “-ing” noun form.
In today’s lesson, we will look at how to make and use “future tense noun groups”.
-(으)ㄹ [-(eu)l] + noun
The usages of this verb ending can be best explained through examples, but basically, this expresses the adjective form of a verb in the future tense.
1. 읽다 = to read
--> 읽 + -(으)ㄹ = 읽을
--> ex) 읽을 책 [il-geul chaek] = a book that (someone) will read, a book to read
2. 초대하다 = to invite
--> 초대하 + -(으)ㄹ = 초대할
--> ex) 초대할 사람 [cho-dae-hal sa-ram] = a person that (someone) will invite, a person to invite
3. 보내다 = to send
--> 보내 + -(으)ㄹ = 보낼
--> ex) 보낼 편지 [bo-nael pyeon-ji] = a letter that (someone) will send, a letter to send
All of the examples above were in the “verb stem + -(으)ㄹ + noun” form.
When you do not use a specific noun and just use the word “것” [geot] which means “thing” or “the fact”, the noun group can mean “something to + verb”.
1. 먹다 = to read
--> 먹 + -(으)ㄹ = 먹을
--> ex) 먹을 것 [meo-geul geot] = something to eat = food
2. 타다 = to ride
--> 타 + -(으)ㄹ = 탈
--> ex) 탈 것 [tal geot] = something to ride = vehicles
3. 마시다 = to drink
--> 마시 + -(으)ㄹ = 마실
--> ex) 마실 것 [ma-sil geot] = something to drink = beverages
Now, do you recognize this ending -(으)ㄹ 것 from the future tense?
In the future tense, you add -(으)ㄹ 거예요 after a verb stem.
-(으)ㄹ 것 + 이에요 = -(으)ㄹ 것이에요 ---> -(으)ㄹ 거예요
Since the future tense stems from this form, -(으)ㄹ 것, a Korean sentence like this can be translated in two different ways.
이거 누가 먹을 거예요?
[i-geo nu-ga meo-geul geo-ye-yo?]
If you think of it as “누가 먹다 (who + eat) + future tense”, it will be translated as “Who will eat this?”.
If you think of it as “누가 먹을 거 (who + will + eat + thing) + to be”, it will be translated as “This thing, it is something that WHO will eat?”.
1. 내일 할 일이 많아요.
[nae-il hal il-i ma-na-yo.]
= I have a lot (of work) to do tomorrow.
= There is a lot of stuff that I will do tomorrow.
2. 지금은 할 이야기가 없어요.
[ji-geu-meun hal i-ya-gi-ga eop-seo-yo.]
= Right now, I have nothing to say.
= For now, there is nothing I will say.
3. 냉장고에 먹을 것이 전혀 없어요.
[naeng-jang-go-e meo-geul geo-si jeon-hyeo eop-seo-yo.]
= In the refrigerator, there isn’t any food at all.