In the previous lesson, we looked at how to make “future tense” noun groups, using the verb ending -(으)ㄹ with a noun. Today, we are going to look at how to do something similar, except this time, it’s going to be “past tense” noun groups.
-(으)ㄴ [-(eu)n] + noun
The noun here can be either the subject of the verb or the object of the verb, so you need to check the context to figure out which one it is, but basically it means “something that did …” or “something that someone did …”
1. 보다 = to watch, to see
--> 보 + -(으)ㄴ = 본
--> ex) 어제 본 영화 [eo-je bon yeong-hwa] = the movie that I saw yesterday
2. 오다 = to come
--> 오 + -(으)ㄴ = 온
--> ex) 어제 온 사람들 [eo-je on sa-ram-deul] = the people who came here yesterday
3. 말하다 = to say, to talk about
--> 말하 + -(으)ㄴ = 말한
--> ex) 친구가 말한 카페 [chin-gu-ga mal-han ka-pe] = the cafe that a friend talked about
Now let’s compare a few different tenses for noun groups, since we learned three different tenses for noun groups.
Using what you have already learned from our previous lessons, you can say things like “a place I often go to”, “the book I bought yesterday”, “the person that I will invite”, etc.
1. 보다 = to watch, to read, to see
Present tense noun group: 보는 + noun
Past tense noun group: 본 + noun
Future tense noun group: 볼 + noun
제가 보는 책이에요. = It’s a book that I’m reading.
제가 본 책이에요. = It’s a book that I’ve read.
제가 볼 책이에요. = It’s a book that I will read.
2. 공부하다 = to study
Present tense noun group: 공부하는 + noun
Past tense noun group: 공부한 + noun
Future tense noun group: 공부할 + noun
요즘 공부하는 외국어예요. = It’s a foreign language that I am studying these days.
어제 공부한 외국어예요. = It’s a foreign language that I studied yesterday.
내일 공부할 외국어예요. = It’s a foreign language that I will study tomorrow.